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 Tortora Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 13th Edition 2011

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PostSubject: Tortora Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 13th Edition 2011   Wed Sep 14, 2011 11:56 am

The thirteenth edition of the phenomenally successful Principles of
Anatomy and Physiology continues to set the standard for the discipline.
The authors maintained a superb balance between structure and function
and continue to emphasize the correlations between normal physiology and
pathophysiology, normal anatomy and pathology, and homeostasis and
homeostatic imbalances. The acclaimed illustration program continues to
be refined and is unsurpassed in the market. The thirteenth edition is
fully integrated with a host of innovative electronic media, including
WileyPlus 5.0 (access purchased separately.) No other text and package
offers a teaching and learning environment as rich and complete.

Five Interesting Functions of the Human Body

  • Most forms of color blindness, an inherited
    inability to distinguish between certain colors, result from the absence
    or deficiency of one of the types of cones. The most common type is
    red-green color blindness, in which red cones or green cones are
    missing. As a result, the person cannot distinguish between red and
    green. Prolonged vitamin A deficiency and the resulting below-normal
    amount of rhodopsin may cause night blindness or nyctalopia, an
    inability to see well at low light levels.
  • Women often have a keener sense of smell than men do, especially at
    the time of ovulation. Smoking seriously impairs the sense of smell in
    the short term and may cause long-term damage to olfactory receptors.
    With aging the sense of smell deteriorates. Hyposmia, a
    reduced ability to smell, affects half of those over age 65 and 75% of
    those over age 80. Hyposmia also can be caused by neurological changes,
    such as a head injury, Alzheimer disease, or Parkinson disease; certain
    drugs, such as antihistamines, analgesics, or steroids; and the damaging
    effects of smoking.
  • Damage to the cerebellum can result in a loss of ability to
    coordinate muscular movements, a condition called ataxia. Blindfolded
    people with ataxia cannot touch the tip of their nose with their finger
    because they cannot coordinate movement with their sense of where a body
    part is located. Another sign of ataxia is a changed
    speech pattern due to uncoordinated speech muscles. Cerebellar damage
    may also result in staggering or abnormal walking movements. People who
    consume too much alcohol show signs of ataxia because alcohol inhibits
    activity of the cerebellum. Such individuals have difficulty in passing
    sobriety tests. Ataxia can also occur as a result of degenerative
    diseases (multiple sclerosis and Parkinson disease), trauma, brain
    tumors, and genetic factors, and as a side effect of medication
    prescribed for bipolar disorder.
  • After death, the cellular membranes become leaky. Calcium ions leak
    out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm and allow myosin
    heads to bind to actin. ATP synthesis ceases shortly after breathing
    stops, however, so the cross-bridges cannot detach from actin. The
    resulting condition, in which muscles are in a state of rigidity (cannot
    contract or stretch), is called rigor mortis (rigidity
    of death). Rigor mortis begins 3-4 hours after death and lasts about 24
    hours; then it disappears as proteolytics enzymes from lysosomes digest
    the cross-bridges.
  • A dislocated mandible can occur in several ways. Anterior displacements
    are the most common and occur when the condylar processes of the
    mandible pass anterior to the articular tubercles. Common causes are
    extreme mouth opening, as in yawning or taking a large bite, dental
    procedures, or general anesthesia. Posterior displacement can be caused
    by a direct blow to the chin. Superior displacements
    can be caused by a direct blow to the chin. Superior displacements are
    typically caused by a direct blow to a partially opened mouth. Lateral dislocations are usually associated with mandibular fractures


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