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Anemia in the Elderly
by Lodovico Balducci (Editor), William B. Ershler (Editor), John M. Bennett (Editor)

Anemia in the elderly has been properly defined as the silent epidemic, representing 3 million people in the United States aged 65 years and older. Incidence and prevalence of this condition increase with age. It differs in its etiology, pathogenesis and treatment from anemia in children and younger adults. Anemia is associated with reduced survival, increased risk of functional dependence and hospitalization, increased risk of congestive heart failure and stage renal disease and cognitive disorders. Approximately 70% of anemia in older individuals is reversible.
Anemia in the Elderly is a major sign that often indicates a serious medical condition and may be treatable.Anemia in the Elderly Although defined as a decrease in red blood cell ( RBC) mass , measures that create easy access erythrocyte mass and hemoglobin ( Hb) and hematocrit ( Ht ) , are commonly used .

In older people Anemia in the Elderly (defined as those over 65 are for the purpose of this article) , the etiology of anemia is sufficiently different etiology in young adults to justify anemia in elderly account as a separate entity .

A complete history , physical examination and laboratory evaluation are necessary for a person who was found to have Anemia in the Elderly. As a result of laboratory, anemia is often recognized elsewhere after the initial evaluation. Multiple causes of anemia in the elderly and the influence of anemia and treatment of anemia in the pathogenesis of the associated diseases warrant a full evaluation of anemia rather than piecemeal approach .

Consult a hematologist for bone marrow aspiration and biopsy in Anemia in the Elderly.

Consult a gastroenterologist for a colonoscopy or endoscopy of the small bowel assessment .

Anemia in the Elderly Low Hb is a powerful multiple adverse prognostic marker in the elderly. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of morbidity , hospitalization and mortality in cases of anemia in the elderly.

Anemia in the Elderly The essential element in the treatment of anemia is to identify reversible etiologies for anemia (eg, iron deficiency, infection) and treated appropriately . Iron deficiency , deficiency of vitamin B- 12 and folic acid deficiency should be evaluated and treated in cases of anemia in the elderly.

Apart from the underlying etiologies or comorbidities face , intervention to correct anemia remains experimental.

Anemia in the Elderly The drugs in patients with anemia are used depending on the cause of anemia in the elderly . For unexplained anemia , no treatment has been well studied . Medications include erythropoiesis stimulating agents ,Anemia in the Elderly  oral supplements minerals (used in mineral deficiencies ) , and colony stimulating factors (which are used to improve erythropoiesis when endogenous levels of erythropoietin [ EPO ] are low) .

Anemia in the Elderly Unless a deficiency has been identified as a cause of anemia in the elderly , without specific dietary intervention will succeed.

Anemia in the Elderly Activity restrictions may be considered for symptomatic anemia in elderly patients who may have active cardiac symptoms until an appropriate cardiac evaluation was performed.

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